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    股指期貨是什么

    2018-09-22 14:10:04 作者:admin 點擊:

    股指期貨是期貨的一種,期貨可以大致分為兩大類,商品期貨與金融期貨。金融期貨中主要品種可以分為外匯期貨、利率期貨和股指期貨、國債期貨。股指期貨,就是以股票指數為標的物的期貨

      股指期貨是期貨的一種,期貨可以大致分為兩大類,商品期貨與金融期貨。金融期貨中主要品種可以分為外匯期貨、利率期貨和股指期貨、國債期貨。

      股指期貨,就是以股票指數為標的物的期貨合約。雙方交易的是一定期限后的股票指數價格水平,通過現金結算差價來進行交割。

      股指期貨(Stock Index Futures)的全稱是股票價格指數期貨,也可稱為股價指數期貨、期指。

      股指期貨與股票相比,有幾個非常鮮明的特點,這對股票投資者來說尤為重要: 股票知識:http://www.gpniu.cn

      (1)期貨合約有到期日,不能無限期持有

      股票買入后可以一直持有,正常情況下股票數量不會減少。但股指期貨都有固定的到期日,到期就要摘牌。因此交易股指期貨不能象買賣股票一樣,交易后就不管了,必須注意合約到期日,以決定是提前了結頭寸,還是等待合約到期(好在股指期貨是現金結算交割,不需要實際交割股票),或者將頭寸轉到下一個月。

      (2)期貨合約是保證金交易,必須每天結算

      股指期貨合約采用保證金交易,一般只要付出合約面值約10-15%的資金就可以買賣一張合約,這一方面提高了盈利的空間,但另一方面也帶來了風險,因此必須每日結算盈虧。買入股票后在賣出以前,賬面盈虧都是不結算的。但股指期貨不同,交易后每天要按照結算價對持有在手的合約進行結算,賬面盈利可以提走,但賬面虧損第二天開盤前必須補足(即追加保證金)。而且由于是保證金交易,虧損額甚至可能超過你的投資本金,這一點和股票交易不同。

      (3)期貨合約可以賣空

      股指期貨合約可以十分方便地賣空,等價格回落后再買回。股票融券交易也可以賣空,但難度相對較大。當然一旦賣空后價格不跌反漲,投資者會面臨損失。

      (4)市場的流動性較高

      有研究表明,指數期貨市場的流動性明顯高于股票現貨市場。如在1991年,FTSE-100指數期貨交易量就已達850億英鎊。

      (5)股指期貨實行現金交割方式

      期指市場雖然是建立在股票市場基礎之上的衍生市場,但期指交割以現金形式進行,即在交割時只計算盈虧而不轉移實物,在期指合約的交割期投資者完全不必購買或者拋出相應的股票來履行合約義務,這就避免了在交割期股票市場出現“擠市”的現象。

      (6)一般說來,股指期貨市場是專注于根據宏觀經濟資料進行的買賣,而現貨市場則專注于根據個別公司狀況進行的買賣。

      股指期貨主要用途有三個:

      一、對股票投資組合進行風險管理,即防范系統性風險(我們平常所說的大盤風險)。通常我們使用套期保值來管理我們的股票投資風險。

      二、利用股指期貨進行套利。所謂套利,就是利用股指期貨定價偏差,通過買入股指期貨標的指數成分股并同時賣出股指期貨,或者賣空股指期貨標的指數成分股并同時買入股指期貨,來獲得無風險收益。

      三、作為一個杠桿性的投資工具。由于股指期貨保證金交易,只要判斷方向正確,就可能獲得很高的收益。例如如果保證金為10%,買入1張滬深300指數期貨,那么只要股指期貨漲了5%,相對于保證金來說,就可獲利50%,當然如果判斷方向失誤,也會發生同樣的虧損。

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